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Review Article





Anand Bodade, Ragini Bodade


ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is complex immune system with many applications in transfusion and transplant medicine. A lot of clinical challenges such as febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and graft-versus-host-disease are caused by HLA antibodies. Histocompatibility in transplant scenario is not the only function of HLA antigens but the main role is to present peptides to immune system and regulate cellular and humoral immunity for the fate of graft. HLA Class I (A, B, and C) and HLA Class II (DR, DQ, and DP) antigens are different in structure and function. Their typing methods have progressed from serology-based techniques to sequence-based typing to next-generation sequencing. Cross-matching techniques have also changed from complement-dependent cytotoxicity to microbead‑based assay to flow cytometry. Finally, HLA and its disease association has long been established, particularly so in cases of autoimmune disorders. The article will be helpful for beginners to get introduced about this unique system and principles in transplant immunology.


KEY WORDS: Human Leukocyte Antigen, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Transfusion, Transplantation


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 To cite this article:

Bodade A, Bodade R. Basics of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) system and its application in clinical specialties. Int. J. Med. Lab. Res. 2020; 5,2:51-68.

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