Research Article





VO Ekundina, MC Ogazi, AA Oladele, EO Nwachukwu, GI Eze


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cervical cancer may be a serious ill health, with nearly 500 000 women developing the disease annually worldwide. Cases occur mostly in less developed countries where no effective screening systems are available. Risk factors include exposure to human papillomavirus, smoking, and immune-system dysfunction. Aim: The aim of this study is to observe and study the expression of CEA and E-cadherin in normal cervix, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix and determine if these markers can be used as predictive markers for SCC of the cervix progression. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks were obtained including: 5 normal cervical tissue, 10 CIN 1, 15 CIN 2 &3 and 20 confirmed SCC of the cervix cases. Immunohistochemistry technique was carried out in this study. Result: The expression of CEA showed increase in positivity with the stages to the SCC of the cervix with the expressions in CIN 2&3 and SCC cases having the most marked expressions and CIN 1 having weak reaction. Meanwhile, E-cadherin expression showed higher grades of positivity in normal cervical tissues and CIN 1 as compared to CIN 2&3 and SCC cases. E-cadherin decreases in positivity with the stages in the progression to SCC of the cervix. E-cadherin expression was found to be inversely relational to the progression to SCC of the cervix while CEA expression was found to be directly relational to the progression to SCC of the cervix.  Conclusion: Therefore, based on the findings in this study, both CEA and E-cadherin are confirmed as predictive markers to the progression to SCC of the cervix.



  1. Aron T, Howard LK and Anna SK. Increased carcino embryonic antigen expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.   Human Pathology, 2000; 31,11: 1357-1362.

  2. Bosch FX, Lorincz A, Muñoz N, Meijer CJLM & Shah KV. The causal relation between human papillo-mavirus and cervical cancer. Journal of clinical pathology, 2002; 55,4: 244-265

  3. Chandana G, Bhaskar V, Mohamed AM, Swathi KR and Raghavendra DS. Role of Serum CEA as Tumour Marker for Predicting Presence of Pelvic and Paraaortic Lymph Node            Metastasis in SCC of Uterine Cervix. Journal of cancer prevention and       current search, 2017; 8,2: 00274

  4. Chen CL, Liu SS, Ip SM, Wong LC, Ngan HYS & Ng TY. E-cadherin expression       is silenced by DNA methylation in cervical cancer cell lines and tumours. European Journal of Cancer, 2003;39,4: 517-523. 

  5. De Boer CJ, van Dorst E, van Krieken H, Jansen-van Rhijn CM, Warnaar SO, Fleuren GJ & Litvinov SV. Changing roles of cadherins and cateninsduring progression of squamous intraepithelial lesions in the uterine cervix. The American journal of pathology,1999; 155,2: 505-515.

  6. Disaia PJ, Morrow CP, Haverback BJ and Dyce BJ. Carcinoembryonic antigen in cancer of the female reproductive system: serial plasma values correlated with disease state.          Cancer,1977; 9,6: 2365-2370.

  7. Ganesan K, Morani AC, Marcal LP, Bhosale PR &Elsayes KM. Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Uterus. In Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis. 2015; Springer, New York, NY. pp. 875-936.

  8. Gerstein AS. Molecular biology problem solver: a laboratory guide. John Wiley &Sons 2004.

  9. Gown AM. Genogenic immuno-histochemistry: a new era in diagnostic immunohistochemistry. Current Diagnostic Pathology, 2002; 8,3: 193-200.

  10. Gupta K, Maurya MK, Mehrotra R, Goel M, Kumar M, Jaiswal R, & Gupta S. Utility of E-Cadherin as a Prognostic Marker in Oral and Cervical Squamous Cell Neoplastic Lesions. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research,2018; 12,1.

  11. Ibeanu OA (2011). Molecular pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Cancer biology & therapy, 11(3): 295-306.

  12. Izadi-Mood N, Asadi K, Shojaei H, Sarmadi S, Ahmadi SA, Sani S &Chelavi LH. Potential diagnostic value of P16 expression in premalignant and malignant cervical           lesions. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official  journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2012; 17,5: 428.

  13. Jordan RC, Daniels TE, Greenspan JS &Regezi JA. Advanced diagnostic methods in           oral and maxillofacial pathology. Part II: Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent         methods. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endo dontology,2002; 93,1: 56-74.

  14. Kabiraj A, Gupta J, Khaitan T & Bhattacharya PT. Principle and techniques of        immunohistochemistry—a review. Int J Biol Med Res,2015; 6,3: 5204-5210.

  15. Kaplanis K, Kiziridou A, Liberis V, Destouni C &Galazios G. E-cadherin expression           during progression of squamous intraepithelial lesions in the uterine        cervix. European journal of gynaecological oncology, 2005; 26,6: 608-610.

  16. Kaur G, Carnelio S, Rao N & Rao L. Expression of E-cadherin in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes: an immunohistochemical study. Indian Journal of Dental Research,2009; 20,1: 71.

  17. Korolenkova LI, Stepanova EV, Ermilova VD, Baryshnikov AY &Bryuzgin VV.    E-cadherin expression is biochemical marker incervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin,2012; 67,4: 177-181.

  18. Reich O, Regauer S, McCluggage WG, Bergeron C & Redman C. Defining the cervical transformation zone and squamocolumnar junction: can we reach a common colposcopic and histologic definition?. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, 2017; 36,6: 517-522.

  19. Rizeq B, Zakaria Z, Ouhtit A. Towards understanding the mechanisms of actions of carcinoembryonic antigen‐related cell adhesion molecule 6 in cancer progression. Cancer science,2018; 109,1: 33-42.

  20. Sellors JW&Sankaranarayanan R. An introduction to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Colposcopy and Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia:  Beginner’s Manual. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2003; 13-20.

  21. Soonthornthum T, Arias-Pulido H, Joste N, Lomo L, Muller C, Rutledge T & Verschraegen C. Epidermal growth factor receptor as a biomarker for cervical cancer. Annals of oncology,2011; 22,10: 2166-2178.

  22. Wright TC, Kurman RJ &Ferenczy A. Precancerous lesions of the cervix. In Blaustein’s      pathology of the female genital tract. Springer, 1994; New York, NY. pp. 229-277.

 To cite this article:

VO Ekundina, MC Ogazi, AA Oladele, EO Nwachukwu, GI Eze. The expression of cea and e-cadherin in the progression to scc of the cervix. Int. J. Med. Lab. Res. 2021; 6,2:25-32.