top of page
Research Articles






Dahlawi.H, Tariq.E.Elmahdi

ABSTRACT: Background:Our blood is typed, or classified, according to the presence or absence ofcertain markers (antigens) found on red blood cells and in the plasma that allow your body to recognize blood as its own. If another blood type is introduced, your immune system recognizes it as foreign and attacks it,resulting in a transfusion reaction.. The two main blood groups are called ABO (with blood types A, B, AB,and O) and Rh (with Rh D-positive or Rh D-negative blood types). The discovery of the ABO blood group system over 100 years ago, caused a great excitement .Until then, all blood had been assumed to be thesame, and the often tragic consequences of blood transfusions were not understood. The Rh blood group system is the most second important system which has a clinical significant in medical life, and probably the most complex of all red blood group systems. It was discovered by Landsteiner and Winerin 1940. Objectives:This study was designed to detect the frequency of ABO, and Rh(D) blood groups of non-Saudi population in Makkah city-KSA . Materials and Methods:A total of: 3818 subjects were included in this study. Samples were collected from non-Saudi populations in different blood banks in Makkah city. From each subject blood was collected, ABO and Rh blood grouping were carried out by tile method using commercially prepared anti-sera based on hemagglutination and hemolysis reactions.The frequency of each type was calculated. Results:Blood group "O" was the most predominant in non-Saudi population in Makkah city (43%) in both Rh positive and negative subjects, followed by blood group A, B and AB with frequencies of 28.2%, 23%, and 5.6% respectively. Majority of the subjects were Rh (D)positive (98.0%), when only 2% were Rh negative.Conclusions:The frequency of ABO blood groupsin both Rh positive and negative subjects among the non-Saudi ethnic groups in Makah city wassimilar to that reported from neighboring regions.

KEYWORDS: ABO, Rh (D), blood groups, non-Saudi population.


  1. Roback JD, editor. 17th ed. USA: American Association of Blood Banks; 2011. Technical Manual.

  2. Mollison PL. 6th ed. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publication; 1979. Blood Transfusionin Clinical Medicine; pp. 239–666.

  3. Lewis SM, Bain JB, Imelda B. 9th ed.Livingstone: Churchill; 2001. Dacie and LewisPractical Haematology; pp. 483–503.

  4. Periyavan S, Sangeetha SK, Marimuthu P,Manjunath BK, Seema DM. Distribution ofABO and Rhesus-D blood groups in and aroundBangalore. AsianJTransfusSci. 2010;4:41. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

  5. Nanu A, Thapliyal RM. Blood group gene frequency in a selected north Indian population. Indian J Med Res. 1997;106:242–6. [PubMed]

  6. Latoo JA, Masoodi NA, Bhat NA, Khan GQ, Kadla SA. The ABO and Rh blood groups in Kashmiri population. Indian J for the Practicing Doctor. 2005;3(2) 2006-5-2006-6.

  7. Chavhan, Aravind Allelic Frequency of ABO And Rh D Blood Group Among The Banjara Caste Population of Akola District, Maharashtra, India. 2011. Available from Nature Precedings .

  8. Abhishek B, Maya devi S, Meena D, Usha KC. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus-D blood groups in and around Thiruvnthapuram. Kerala Med J. 2011;1:28–9.

  9. Afzal M, Ziaur-Rehman, Hussain F, Siddiqi R. A survey of blood groups. J Pak MedAssoc. 1977;27:426 –8. [PubMed]

  10. Das PK, Nair SC, Harris VK, Rose D, Mammen JJ, Bose YN, et al. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups among blood donors in a tertiary care centre in South India. Trop Doct. 2001;31:47–8.[PubMed]

  11. Reddy KS, Sudha G. ABO and Rh blood groups among the Desuri Reddis of Chittur district, Andhra Pradesh. Anthropol. 2009;11:237–8.

  12. Naidu JM, Veerraju P. Blood groups among Brahmin and Kamma caste populations of Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Am JPhysAnthropol. 1982;58:197–9. [PubMed]

  13. Datta UK, Mondal S, Mukherjee S. A study of the distribution of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups amongst Lodha tribe in Midnapore district of West Bengal. J Indian Med Assoc. 1997;95:497 –8. 506.[PubMed]

  14. Bernhard W. Distribution of ABO blood groups and incidence of Rh factor (D) in various ethnic groups in the Hindu Kush region (Kafirs, Kalash Chitrali) Anthropol Anz. 1980;37:251–65. [PubMed

  15. Falusi AG, Ademowo OG, Latunji CA, Okeke AC, Olatunji PO, Onyekwere TO, et al. Distribution of ABO and RH genes in Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2000;29:23–6. [PubMed]

  16. Boyd WC, Boyd LG. The blood groups and types of the Ramah Navaho. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1949;7:569–74.[PubMed]

  17. Beinab MA, Talib RA, Lulu A, Al-Nuaim A, Mohsen AF, El-Hazini A, et al. Blood groups in ISSN NO. 2456-4400Int J Med Lab Res 2017, 2(3): 14-18© All right are reserved 18 saudi obstetric patients. Saudi MedJ. 1998;19(3)

  18. Anees M, Jawad A, Hashmi I. Distribution of ABO and rh blood group alleles in Mandi Bahauddin district of Punjab,Pakistan Proc. Pakistan Acad Sci. 2007;44:289 –94.

  19. Lyko J, Gaertner H, Kaviti JN, Kariithi MW, Akoto B. Blood-group systems ABO and RH in the Kenyan population. FoliaMed Cracov. 1992;33:85–92. [PubMed]

  20. Tauszik T. Heterogeneity in the distribution of ABO blood groups in Hungary. Gene Geogr. 1995;9:169–76. [PubMed]

  21. Wagner FF, Kasulke D, Kerowgan M, Flegel WA. Frequencies of the blood groups ABO, Rhesus, D category VI, Kell, and of clinically relevant high-frequency antigens in south-western Germany. Infusionsther Transfusionsmed. 1995;22:285

bottom of page