Research Articles




Udonkang M. I.*, Umanah I. A., Inyang I. J., Asemota E.


ABSTRACT:Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are risk factors in the development of urinary system neoplasia. In this study, the urine smears of HIV-seropositive persons were screened for atypical epithelial changes. A total of 61 subjects, comprising 41 HIV-seropositive persons (20 ART users and 21 non-ART users) visiting the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital and Immanuel Infirmary in Calabar and 20 HIV-seronegative persons from the general public between the ages of 18 to 45 years old of both sexes participated in the study. Fresh voided urine samples were assessed with Meditest Combi-9 urinalysis strip and cytologically using Papanicolaou method. Results showed that age group 32-38 years and 18-24 years had the highest number of participants among the non-ART users 12(57.1%)  and  ART users and control subjects 13(65.0%)  respectively. There was statistical significance between the non-ART users (p=0.001) and ART users (p=0.001) with control. Females were associated more than males among the non-ART users 16(76.2%), ART users 16(80%) (p=0.002). The urinalysis result showed that only the ART users had 2(10%) abnormal presence of blood. The cytological findings of abnormal epithelial cells were associated with the non-ART 1(4.8%), (p=0.001) and ART 2(10%), (p=0.001) users respectively. The urine smears showed benign atypical, keratinized and degenerated superficial epithelial cells. Therefore, urine cytology examination has revealed the presence of atypical epithelial cell changes among HIV-seropositive persons. It can be a useful tool in the management of HIV treatment and progression and is recommended for their routine follow-up.


KEYWORDS: HIV, urine cytology, ART, Calabar, Papanicolaou stain, urinalysis


  1. UNAIDS (2014). Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Joint UN programme on HIV/AIDS; 2013.

  2. Staiman, V. R & Lowe, F. C. Urologic problems in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 2004; 4(1); 427-437.

  3. Ibadin, O. M., Onunu A. & Ukoh G. Urinary tract infections in adolescent/young adult Nigerians with acquired Human Immunodeficiency disease in Benin city. 2006; 5(2):55-60.

  4. Awolude, O. A., Adesina, O. A., Oladokun, A., Mutiu, W. B. & Adewele,I. F. Asymptomatic bacterium among HIV positive pregnant women virulence; 2010;1(3) 130-133.

  5. Mukherjee S, Bhattachaurya P. K, Hazra S, Das S. Prevalence of proteinuria and abnormal urinary cytology in HIV+ve asymptomatic patients. , 2017; 10:496-1499.

  6. Gaughan E. M, Dezube B. J, Bower M, Aboulafia D. M, Bohac G, Cooley T. P, Partanowwitz L. HIV-associated bladder cancer: A case series evaluating difficulties in diagnosis and management. , 2009; 9:10.

  7. Inyang-Etoh, P. C., Udofia, G. C. Alaribe, A. A. A. & Udonwa, N. E. Asymptomatic bacterial in patient on antiretroviral drug therapy in Calabar, 2009; 9 (6) 270-275.

  8. Radu F, Jipa R. E, Rusu E, Cursaru R, Dragut R, Stegaru D et al. Metabolic disorders in Patients with HIV, , 2016; 23(4):397-401.

  9. Choi A. I. & Rodriguez R. A. Renal manifestations of HIV. HIV Insite, University of California, San Francisco, 2008.

  10. Gorriz J. L, Gutierrez F, Trullas J. C, Arazo P, Arribas J. R, Barril G. et al. Consensus document on the management of renal disease in HIV-infected patients, , 2014; 34(Suppl.2):1-81.

  11. Bancroft J. D & Gamble M. . 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone, London, 2008:121.

  12. US center for disease control and prevention (CDC). HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections,2017.

  13. National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA). National HIV strategy for adolescents and young people 2016-2020. NACA, 2016, 1-58.

  14. Offor C. E & Enyinna O. Urinalysis as a rapid assessment method of organ status in HIV patients placed on therapy. Journal of Oral & Dental Medicine, 2015; 2(1): 01-04.

  15. Siddappa S, Mythri K. M, Kowsalya R. Cytological findings in routine voided urine samples with hematuria from a tertiary care centre in south India, 2012; 29(1): 16-19.

Basics and upadate on flow cytometry related research

IJMLR events

   Article are invited for

         Vol 5, Issue 2,

         May-Aug 2020

  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • Google+ - Black Circle

Copyright © 2016 International Journal of Medical Laboratory Research. All right reserved