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Research Articles






Inyang, Imeobong J., Bassey, Iya E., Udonkang Mfoniso , Ugori,Chioma ,Udoka,Chigozie


ABSTRACT:Introduction: This is a descriptive study carried out in Calabar municipal and Calabar South local governments , Cross  River State, during the period of April  (2015) to December  (2015). Aim:  The main purpose of carrying out this research work is to evaluate the cytomorphological features of urine smears (using papanicoulaou stain) among cigarette smokers in Calabar rcigarette smokers while 53 subjects were non- cigarette smokers. The numbers of years of cigarette smoking were different and the numbers of cigarette sticks smoked per day were also variable among the test group. Individuals with urinary tract infection were not included in this research work and individuals with less than three (3) years of cigarette smoking were also not included in this research work. From each urine sample collected, smears were obtained from the sediments after centrifuging and were immediately fixed with a cytology-spray fixative for at least 30 minutes, before staining smears with Papanicolaou stain. Results and Discussion: The stained smears were examined under a light microscope and revealed a high cellular turnover among 70% of the test group when compared with the control groups which are nonsmokers, showing few normal urothelia cells. Enlargement in nuclear cytoplasm ratio, irregular nuclear borders, necrosis, cluster of cells showing dysplastic changes, moderate haemorrhage, heavy infiltrates of  inflammatory cells, hyperchromatism, pleomorphysms and  neoplastic transformation were among the features observed in smears of the test group.Conclusion: On the basis of this research work, cigarette smoking has been seen to be one of the leading causes of bladder cancer in line with findings of  Humidah A., Abdelhabibs, Laura P. and Witold C. (2014) .

KEYWORDS: Cytomorphological, cigarettes, papanicolaou, pleomorphysm, Urine cytology .


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